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Download computernetworks by godse and bakshi EBooks | Read online computernetworks by godse and bakshi EBooks

Download computernetworks by godse and bakshi EBooks | Read online computernetworks by godse and bakshi EBooks




Computer Architecture & Organisation,
History and evolution of computers, Architecture of a general purpose computer, Stored program computer operation.Data Path DesignComputer system design, Gate level design, Register level design and processor level design, Fixed point arithmetic, Data paths of Two s complement addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, Booths algorithm for multiplication, Floating point arithmetic and data path of floating point ALU.Processor DesignCPU organization and operation, Accumulator based CPU, CPU with general registers, Instruction types, Formats and addressing arithmetic - logic unit design, Sequential ALUs, Structure of a basic sequential ALU, Register files, Co-processors and pipeline processors, RISC and CISC computers.Control DesignGeneral structure of hardwired and micro-programmed control units, Hardwired control design, State tables, Greatest common divisor processor, Classical design of the gcd processor control unit, Design of a typical of CPU control unit, Micro-programmed control, Control unit organization, Microinstruction addressing and timing, Micro-program sequences, Pipeline control, Instruction pipeline, Structure multistage pipeline, Organization of CPU with multistage instruction pipeline, Pipeline performance, Measures.Memory OrganizationOrganization of multilevel memory system in a computer, Main memory: Random access memory organization, Semiconductor RAMs, RAM's design structure of D-RAM chip, Secondary memory : Several access memory, Access methods, Memory organization magnetic disc and tape reluctant array of inexpensive disks, Memories, Optical memory and read out devices.High Speed Cache Memory SystemCache and virtual memory, Address translation with segmentation and paging with caches, Cache organization, Operation address mapping associative memory, Cache types and performance.System Buses and I/O, CommunicationBuses, Bus interfacing timing bus arbitration, I/O and system control, I/O control methods, Programmed I/O, I/O processors: I/O instruction types, Measures, I/OP organization, CPU and IOP interaction.Multiple Advanced Processor OrganizationsParallel processing shared and distributed memory computers, Processor interconnection network structures and performance, Multiprocessors(MIMD).
by D.A.Godse A.P.Godse
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Computer Networks,

by V.S.Bagad
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Data Communication And Networking,
Digital Transmission FundamentalsDigital signals, Analog versus digital, Limits of achievable data rate in digital communication, Transmission impairment [ Attenuation and attenuation distortion, Delay distortion, Thermal noise, Inter modulation noise, Impulse Noise, Cross talk, Channel capacity]Digital Modulation : Modems, Digital continuous wave modulation techniques for Modem e.g. ASK, FSK, PSK, Baud rate, QAM, Modern constellation patterns, Interface control for typical modem, EIA 232/V.24 interface.Error Detection and Correction : LRC, VRC, CRC, Checksum, Hamming code.Switching Techniques and High Speed Digital AccessDifferent switching techniques, Circuit switching and telephone networks, Signaling system #7. Architecture overview, Packet switching networks, T1 carrier system/E1, T3/E3 carriers, SONET/SDH, DSL Technology, ADSL technology, Cellular Telephone Systems, Cable modems.Data Communication MediaTransmission Media : Guided Transmission Media (Physical description, Application, Transmission Characteristics) Twisted pair (Unshielded and shielded twisted pair), Category 3, Category 5 UTP, Coaxial cable.Wireless transmission unguided media (Terrestrial microwave, Satellite microwave)Fiber Optic Communication : Principle of light transmission, Types and modes of fiber, Losses and dispersion in fiber, Sources (light) and detectors.Satellite Communication : Kepler s laws, Orbital aspects, Geostationary and frequency plans, Frequency plans and polarization, Transponders, Multiple access methods.Network FundamentalsNeed of networks/advantages of network, Structure of communication network (DTE, DCE, Application process, Logical and Physical connection),Point-to-Point, Multidrop Configuration, Simplex, Half Duplex, Duplex transmissionNetwork topologies - Hierarchical [Tree], Horizontal [Bus], Star, Ring, MeshTypes of networks, Network architectures (OSI model), TCP-IP protocol stack overview,Network interface hardware and network hardware components - connectors, transceivers and media converters, NICs, RS-232 and RS-449, PCI, USB Protocols.Devices used for extending LANs - Repeaters, Bridges, Switches.Data Link Layer Control and ProtocolsLine Discipline, Flow and error control, stop and wait ARQ, Go back N ARQ, Selective repeat ARQ.Character oriented protocol [IBM s BSC protocol], Bit oriented Protocols [HDLC], PPPMulti point configuration of a network and multiple access techniques and protocols - Random access, ALOHA, Slotted ALOHA, CSMA, CSMA/CD, Controlled access [Reservation, Polling/select, Token passing] channelisation [FDMA, TDMA, CDMA].Local Area NetworkLAN applications, LAN architecture, LAN topologies [Bus, Star, Ring, Tree], Medium access control [RR, Reservation, Contention], MAC frame format.IEEE 802 LAN standards : 802.3 Ethernet (CSMA/CD), Ethernet frame IEEE 802.3 frame format, IEEE 802.3, 10 Mbps Specification (Ethernet) - 10 Base 5, 10 Base 2, 10 Base T, 10 Base F IEEE 802.3 100 Mbps Specification (Fast Ethernet)Gigabit EthernetFDDI,IEEE 802.5 Token Ring - MAC Techniques, Physical Layer SpecificationBackbone Network - Bus backone, Star backone Virtual LANs.
by I.A.Dhotre V.S.Bagad
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Computer Architecture,

by A.P.Godse
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Computer Organization,
Structure of a Computer System Brief history of computers, Von Neumann architecture, Functional units, Bus structures and Interconnection networks, Performance.Data Types and Computer Arithmetic Scalar data types, Fixed and floating point numbers, Signed numbers, Integer arithmetic, 2 s Complement multiplication, Booths algorithm, Hardware Implementation, Division restoring and Non-restoring algorithms, Floating point representations, IEEE standards, Floating point arithmetic.Control Unit DesignMachine instructions and addressing modes, Single bus CPU, Control unit operation: Instruction sequencing, Micro-operations, (Register Transfer).Hardwired control : Design methods, Design examples : Multiplier CU.Micro-programmed control : Basic concepts, Microinstruction-sequencing and execution, Micro-program control, Applications of microprogramming, Emulator.Processor DesignCPU Architecture, Register organization, Instruction set-instruction types, instruction formats (Intel, Motorola processors), Instruction cycles, Instruction pipelining, Types of operands, Addressing modes (Intel, Motorola processors), ALU design-ALU organization. Memory Organisation Characteristics of memory systems, Internal and external memory, Chip packaging. Main Memory - ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, RAM : SRAM, DRAM, SDRAM, RDRAM, error correction.High-speed memories : Cache memory, Organization and mapping, Replacement algorithms, Cache coherence, MESI protocol.Interleaved and associative memories, Performance characteristics, Virtual memory : Main memory allocation, Segmentation, Paging.Secondary storage : Magnetic disk, Tape, DAT, RAID, Optical memory, CDROM, DVD.I/O OrganisationInput/output systems, Programmed I/O, Interrupt Driven I/O, I/O channels, Direct Memory Access (DMA), Buses and standard Interfaces : Synchronous, Asynchronous, Parallel, Serial, PCI, SCSI, USB Ports.Peripherals : Keyboard, Mouse, Scanners, Video Displays, Dot-matrix, Desk-jet, Laser Printers,ultiprocessor ConfigurationsClosely coupled and loosely coupled multiprocessor architectures, Problems of bus contentions. Interprocess communications, Coprocessor and I/O Processor, Bus controller, Bus arbitration, System Bus-Uni-Bus, Multibus.RISC and Superscalar Processors : RISC - features, Register file, RISC Vs CISC, Superscalar processors - Overview, Organization.
by D.A.Godse A.P.Godse
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Basic Electronics,
Conduction in SemiconductorsElectrons and holes in an intrinsic semiconductor, conductivity of a semiconductor, carrier concentrations in an intrinsic semiconductor, donor and acceptor impurities, charge densities in a semiconductor. Fermi level in a semiconductor having impurities, diffusion, carrier life time, Hall effect.Semiconductor-Diode CharacteristicsQualitative theory of a PN junction, PN junction as a diode, volt-ampere characteristics, temperature dependence of PN characteristics, half wave and full wave rectifiers, other full wave circuits, ripple factor, capacitor filter; Zener diode-characterisitcs, zener and avalanche breakdown, zener regulated power supply.Transistor CharacteristicsJunction transistor, transistor current components, transistor as an amplifier, common-base configuration, common-emitter configuration, CE cut-off region, CE saturation region, large-signal, DC and small-signal CE values of current gain, operating point, bias stabilization, cascading transistor amplifiers, decibel; classification of amplifiers, distortion in amplifiers, frequency response of an amplifier, RC coupled amplifier.Theory of Sinusoidal OscillatorsConcept of feedback, sinusoidal oscillators, working of RC phase shift, Colpitt's and Hartely's oscillator using BJT expressions for frequency of oscillation (no derivation), crystal oscillator.Operational Amplifiers (Op-Amp)Ideal Op-Amp, inverting and non-inverting Op-Amp, need for Op-Amp, Op-Amp characteristics, Op-Amp applications, voltage follower, addition and subtraction using Op-Amp circuits. Op-Amp integrating and differentiating circuits.Communication SystemsBasic block diagram of communication systems modulation, Amplitude Modulation, frequency spectrum, power relations, Phase and Frequency Modulation, frequency spectrum, comparison of AM and FM, radio telegraphy, radio telephony, super heterodyne receivers.Digital ElectronicsDigital logic-Binary numbers, number base conversion, Octal and hexadecimal numbers, complements, Binary addition and subtraction using One's and Two's complements, addition and subtraction in other number system, fractional numbers and BCD numbers. Binary logic, symbols, basic theorems and properties of Boolean Algebra, De-Morgan's theorem, AND, OR logic gate realisation using diodes, NOT gate using transistor, Diode Transistor Logic (DTL) Resistance Transistor Logic (RTL), Direct Coupled Transistor Logic (DCTL), Current Mode Logic (CML), and Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL), symbols used for NOT, OR, AND, NAND, XOR gates and their truth tables, Boolean functions, half adder, full adder and parallel binary adder, introduction to sequential logic circuits, working of an R-S flip-flop (transistor version, NAND/NOR version)Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO)Basic block diagram, use of CRO for measurement of amplitude, frequency and phase.
by U.A.Bakshi A.P.Godse
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Principles Of Management,

by V.S.Bagad
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Linear Ic Applications,
Integrated CircuitsClassification, chip size and circuit complexity, basic information of Op-amp, ideal and practical Op-amp, internal circuits, Op-amp characteristics DC and AC characteristics, 741 Op-amp and its features.Op-amp ApplicationsBasic application of Op-amp, instrumentation amplifier, ac amplifier, V to I and I to V converters, Op-amp circuits using diodes, sample & hold circuits, log & antilog amplifiers, multipliers and dividers, differentiators and integrators, comparators, Schmitt trigger, multivibrators, introduction to voltage regulators, festures of 723.Active Filters & Oscillators and Waveform GeneratorsButterworth filters-1st order, 2nd order LPF, HPF filters, band pass, band reject and all pass filters. Oscillator types and principle of operation-RC, Wien and quadrature type, waveform generators-triangular, swatooth, square wave and VCO.Timers & Phase Locked Loops555 timer, functional diagram, monostable and astable operations and applications, Schmitt trigger. PLL-introduction, block schematic, principles and description of individual blocks, 565 PLL, Applications of PLL-frequency multiplication, frequency translation, AM, FM & FSK demodulators.D to A & A to D ConvertersBasic DAC techniques, weighted resistor DAC, R-2R ladder DAC, inverted R-2R DAC, and IC 1408 DAC, different types of ADCs-parallel comparator type ADC, counter type ADC, successive approximation ADC and dual slope ADC. DAC and ADC specifications.
by A.P.Godse U.A.Bakshi
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Antennas and Wave Propagation,

by Bakshi
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Antennas And Wave Propagation,
Radiation Fields of Wire AntennasConcept of vector potential. Modification for time varying, Retarded case. Fields associated with Hertzian dipole. Power radiated and radiation resistance of current element. Radiation resistance of elementary dipole with linear current distribution. Radiation from half-wave dipole and quarter-wave monopole. Assumed current distribution for wire antennas. Use of capacity hat and loading coil for short antennas.Antenna Fundamentals and Antenna ArraysDefinitions : Radiation intensity. Directive gain. Directivity. Power gain. Beam width. Band width. Gain and radiation resistance of current element. Half-wave dipole and folded dipole. Reciprocity principle. Effective length and Effective area. Relation between gain effective length and radiation resistance. Loop Antennas : Radiation from small loop and its radiation resistance. Radiation from a loop with circumference equal to a wavelength and resultant circular polarization on axis.Helical antenna. Normal mode and axial mode operation.Antenna Arrays : Expression for electric field from two and three element arrays. Uniform linear array. Method of pattern multiplication. Binomial array. Use of method of images for antennas above ground.Travelling Wave (Wideband) AntennasRadiation from a travelling wave on a wire. Analysis of Rhombic antenna. Design of Rhombic antennas.Coupled Antennas : Self and mutual impedance of antennas. Two and three element Yagi antennas. Log periodic antenna. Reason for feeding from end with shorter dipoles and need for transposing the lines. Effects of decreasing.Aperture and Lens AntennasRadiation from an elemental area of a plane wave (Huygen s source). Radiation from the open end of a coaxial line. Radiation from a rectangular aperture treated as an array of Huygen s sources. Equivalence of fields of a slot and complementary dipole. Relation between dipole and slot impedances. Method of feeding slot antennas. Thin slot in an infinite cylinder. Field on the axis of an E-plane sectoral horn. Radiation from circular aperture. Beam width and effective area a.Reflector type of antennas (dish antennas). Dielectric lens and metal plane lens antennas. Lumeberg lens. Spherical waves and Biconical antenna.PropagationThe three basic types of propagation; ground wave, space wave and sky wave propagation.Sky wave propagation : Structure of the ionosphere. Effective dielectric constant of ionized region. Mechanism of refraction. Refractive index. Critical frequency. Skip distance. Effect of earth s magnetic field. Energy loss in the ionosphere due to collisions. Maximum usable frequency. Fading and Diversity reception.Space wave propagation : Reflection from ground for vertically and horizontally polarized waves. Reflection characteristics of earth. Resultant of direct and reflected ray at the receiver. Duct propagation.Ground wave propagation : Attenuation characteristics for ground wave propagation. Calculation of field strength at a distance.
by A.V.Bakshi U.A.Bakshi
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Communication Engineering,
Block Schematic of Communication System.Analog and Digital base band signals and their bandwidth requirements.Necessity of modulation and types of modulation-AM, FM and PM.Amplitude ModulationBlock schematic of DSBFC, DSBSC, SSB, VSB and ISB transmitters. Generation methods, Mathematical analysis, modulation index, frequency spectrum, power requirement.Block schematic of receivers for above transmission. Mixers, detectors, Tracking, AGC. Modulator and demodulator ICs.Performance parameters for receiver such as selectivity, sensitivity, fidelity, image frequency rejection.Double conversion technique in Communication receivers.Frequency ModulationBlock schematic of FM transmitters, Narrow band and wide band FM generation. Direct and Indirect methods of generation, Mathematical Analysis, modulation index, frequency spectrum and bandwidth requirement.Block schematic of FM receivers, FM discriminators, pre-emphasis and de-emphasis.Comparison of AM and FM, Noise triangle. FM modulator and demodulator ICs.Pulse ModulationNyquist Criteria, PAM, PWM, generation and detection.PCM & Multiplexing-Techniques.Radiation and PropagationConcept of radiation, basic antenna system - antenna gain, directivity and radiation pattern. Dipole antenna, Different R.F. bands used in communication, Mechanism of propagation. Groundwave, spacewave and skywave propagation, duct propagation, tropospheric scattering, fading, Diversity reception.Audio CommunicationMicrophones, Loudspeakers, loudspeaker enclosures, PA systems, Graphic equalizer, stereophony/Hi fi Systems, Recent trends in sound recording.TelephonyPrinciples of telephony, various tones, electronic telephone exchanges, DTMF pulsing techniques.NoiseSources of noise, Johnson noise, SNR, Noise figure, noise temperature.Internet Technology, basic architecture, Applications.
by A.P.Godse U.A.Bakshi
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Basics Of Electrical And Electronics Engineering,
Electrical Circuits and MeasurementsOhm's law, Kirchoff's laws, Steady state solution of DC circuits, Introduction to AC circuits, Waveforms and RMS value, Power and power factor, Single phase and three phase balanced circuits.Operating principles of moving coil and moving iron instruments (Ammeters and voltmeters), Dynamometer type watt meters and energy meters.Electrical MachinesConstruction, Principle of operation, Basic equations and applications of DC generators, DC motors, Single phase transformer, Induction motors and stepper motors.Semiconductor Devices and ApplicationsCharacteristics of PN junction diode, Zener effect, Zener diode and its characteristics, Half wave and full wave rectifiers, Voltage regulation.Bipolar junction transistor, CB, CE, CC configurations and characteristics, Necessity of biasing, Principles of biasing circuits, Elementary treatment of small signal amplifier.Characteristics and simple applications of SCR, DIAC, TRIAC and UJT.Digital ElectronicsBinary number system, Logic gates, Boolean algebra, Half and full adders, Flip-flops, Registers and counters, A/D and D/A conversions.Fundamentals of Communication EngineeringTypes of signals : Analog and digital signals - Modulation and demodulation : Principles of amplitude and frequency modulations.Communication systems : Radio, TV, Fax, Microwave, Satellite and optical fibre.
by A.P.Godse U.A.Bakshi
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Logic Design,
Boolean Algebra and Combinational NetworksPrinciple of Duality; Boolean Formulas and Functions : Normal Formulas; Canonical Formulas : Minterm Canonical Formulas, m-Notation; Manipulations of Boolean Formulas: Equation Complementation, Expansion about a Variable, Equation Simplification, The Reduction Theorems, Minterm Canonical Formulas, Maxterm Canonical Formulas, Complements of Canonical Formulas; Gates and Combinational Networks : Gates, Combinational Networks, Analysis Procedure, Synthesis Procedure, A Logic Design Example; Incomplete Boolean Functions and Don't Care Conditions : Describing Incomplete Boolean Functions, Don't Care Conditions in Logic Design; Additional Boolean Operations and Gates : The NAND-Functions, The NOR-Functions, Universal Gates, NAND-Gate Realizations, NOR-Gate Realizations, The Exclusive-OR-Function, The Exclusive-NOR Function.Simplification of Boolean ExpressionsFormulation of the Simplification Problem : Criteria of Minimality, The Simplification Problem; Prime Implicants and Irredundant Disjunctive Expressions : Implies, Subsumes, Implicants and Prime Implicants, Irredundant Disjunctive Normal Formulas; Prime Implicants and Irredundant Conjunctive Expressions; Karnaugh Maps : One-Variable and Two-Variable Maps, Three-Variable and Four-Variable Maps, Karnaugh Maps and Canonical Formulas, Product and Sum Term Representations on Karnaugh Maps; Using Karnaugh Maps to Obtain Minimal Expressions for Complete Boolean Functions : Prime Implicants and Karnaugh Maps, Essential Prime Implicants, Minimal Sums, Minimal Products; Minimal Expressions of Incomplete Boolean Functions : Minimal Sums, Minimal Products; The Quine-McCluskey Method of Generating Prime Implicants and Prime Implicates : Prime Implicants and the Quine - McCluskey Method, Algorithm for Generating Prime Implicants, Prime Implicates and the Quine - McCluskey Method; Prime Implicant/Prime-Implicate Tables and Irredundant Expressions; Petrick's Method of Determining Irredunant Expressions, Prime-Implicate Tables and Irredundant Conjunctive Normal Formulas; Prime Implicant/Prime-Implicate Table Reductions : Essential Prime Implicants, Column and Row Reductions, A Prime - Implicant Selection Procedure; Decimal Method for Obtaining Prime Implicants; Map Entered Variables.Logic Levels and FamiliesLogic Levels, Integration Levels; Output Switching Times, The Propagation Delay, Fan-out and Fan-in, Extension to Other Logic Gates, Logic Cascades.Transistor-Transistor logic; Wired logic, TTL with Totem-Pole output, Thee-state output TTL, Schottky TTL; The MOS Field-Effect-Transistor : Operation of n-Channel, Enhancement-Type MOSFET, The n-Channel Depletion-Type MOSFET, The p-channel MOSFETs, Circuit Symbols, The MOSFET as a Resistor; NMOS and PMOS Logic : The NMOS Inverters, NMOS NOR-Gate, NMOS NAND-Gate, PMOS Logic, performance; The CMOS Inverter, CMOS NOR-Gate, CMOS NAND-Gate, performance, Comparison of the above logic families.Logic Design with MSI Components and Programmable Logic DevicesBinary Adders and Subtractors; Binary Subtractors, Carry Lookahead Adders; Decimal Adders; Comparators; Decoders; Logic Design Using Decoders; Decoders with an Enable Input; Encoders; Multiplexers; Logic Design with Multiplexers; Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs); PLD Notation; Programmable Read-Only Memories (PROMs); Programmable Logic Arrays (PLAs); Programmable Array Logic (PAL) Devices.Flip-Flops and Simple Flip-Flop ApplicationsThe Basic Bistable Element; Latches; The SR Latch, An Application of the SR Latch : A Switch Debouncer, The SR Latch, The Gated SR Latch, The Gated D Latch; Master-Slave Flip-Flops (Pulse-Triggered Flip-Flops); The Master-Slave SR Flip-Flop; The Master-Slave JK Flip-Flop; Edge-Triggered Flip-Flop; The Positive Edge-Triggered D Flip-Flop; Negative Edge-Triggered D flip-flops; Characteristic Equations; Registers; Counters : Binary Ripple Counters, Synchronous Binary Counters, Counters Based on Shift Registers ; Design of Synchronous Counters : Design of a Synchronous Mod-6 Counter Using Clocked JK Flip-Flops, Design of a Synchronous Mod-6 Counter Using Clocked D,T or SR Flip-Flops.Synchronous Sequential NetworksStructure and Operation of Clocked Synchronous Sequential Networks; Analysis of Clocked Synchronous Sequential Networks; Excitation and Output Expressions, Transition Equations, Transition Tables, Excitation Tables, State Tables, State Diagrams Network Terminal Behavior.
by D.A.Godse A.P.Godse
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Digital Systems,
Logic FamiliesParameter definitions-noise margin, power dissipation, voltage and current parameters, propagation delay. Typical values for TTL, CMOS & ECL. Input/output profile for TTL & CMOS TTL logic families-standard TTL, Totem-poll, open collector, tri-state (concept & application). Significance of TTL sub families (L, H, LS, S) & MOS family-importance of (C, HC), PMOS, NMOS (inverter only), CMOS (inverter, AND & NOR).TTL-CMOS/CMOS-TTL interfacing, comparison of TTL & CMOS TTL compatible high speed CMOS series.Combinational Logic Circuits(a) Binary number system - Signed number representation (1 s, 2 s complement & sign magnitude representation).Codes - BCD, GRAY, Seven Segment.Principles of combinational logic : Canonical forms don t care conditions, Minimization techniques (K-maps upto 4 variables only). Quine-Mc Cluskey method (4 variables).Design examples - code converters (binary to gray and gray to binary, BCD to 7 segment IC 7447, 7448)(b) Digital comparators (2-bit, 4-bit using IC 7485), parity generation and checking (IC 74180).Design methodology using MSI ICs. Multiplexer, Demultiplexer (Trees), multivariable function implementation using MUX and decoder. Parallel adder (IC 7483). Look ahead carry generator, arithmetic logic unit (IC 74181).Programmable Logic Devices : Detail architecture, study of PROM, PAL, PLA, designing combinational circuits using PLDs.(Code conversion)Sequential logic circuitStudy of flip-flop, 1 bit latch, clocked S-R, J-K, M/S J-K, T and D F/F, race around condition, flip-flop truthtable, excitation table, flip-flop conversion, flip-flop characteristics.Design of ripple counter using flip-flop (IC 7490, 93) 4 bit up/down (positive negative edge triggered).Shift register (modes of operation), 4 bit bi-directional using D/J-K universal shift registers, application of shift registers (Ring counter, Sequence generator, Johnson s counter) IC 7495/74195.Synchronous sequential m/c sDesign of Synchronous counter using IC 74191, 4 bit up/down mod-n counters. Moore/Mealy m/c s, representation techniques, state diagrams, state tables, state reduction, state assignment, implementation using flip-flops. Applications like sequence generator and detection.A/D and D/A convertersDigital to Analog converters, example of D/A converter IC. Analog to Digital converters, example of A/D converter.Semiconductor memoriesMemory organization and operation, expanding memory size, classification and characteristics of memory, RAM, ROM, EPROM, EEPROM, NVRAM, SRAM, DRAM.
by D.A.Godse A.P.Godse
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Electronic Devices And Circuits - Ii,
Multistage low frequency Amplifiers (BJT/FET)Necessity of cascading LF small signal amplifiers in various configurations, techniques of improving input impedance of CC stage, Darlinton connection, Bootstrapping, CE - CE cascade, CE - CB cascade arrangement, Effect of cascading on frequency response of single stage and cascaded amplifiers, square wave testing or step response of AF amplifier.LF Amplifiers with negative FeedbackBlock schematic of amplifier with negative feedback, gain with feedback, consequences of introducing negative feedback in small signal and multistage amplifiers, classification of amplifiers in view of feedback concept, i.e. Ai, Av, Rm, Gm - Types of sampling and mixing - Ways of indroducing negative feedback in amplifiers i.e. voltage series, current series, voltage shunt, current shunt, effects of negative feedback on Ri and Ro in all four types, Methodology of feedback amplifier analysis.Large Signal (Power) AF AmplifiersClassification of amplifiers in Class A, B, C, etc. concept of large signal amplification, total harmonic distortion, push pull configuration, efficiency of power conversion, CE transformer coupled power amplifier, complementary symmetry CC power amplifier in single dual supply version. Efficiency and distortion analysis of those configurations (Graphical techniques to calculate harmonic distortion), Crossover distortion, SOA and its limits, secondary breakdown, Heatsink, its standard shapes and sizes, Thermal calculations and resistances.OscillatorsEmploying positive feedback in amplifier, problems of instability, Barkhausen criteria for sinusoidal oscilllators, derivation and analysis of transistorised RC phase shift/Wien bridge oscillators for frequency expressions and gain requirements. LC oscillators -Hartley, Colpitts, Clapp, Crystal (Miller & Pierce), UJT relaxation oscillator, gain & frequency stabilityOperational AmplifiersInternal block schematic of monolithic op-amp IC, Analysis of transistorised difference amplifier stage, Method of improving its CMRR, Definitions and Measurements of op-amp parameters like input offset voltage and current, bias current, CMRR, PSRR, open loop gain, etc. Concept of dc amplification, inability of op-amp to work as a linear small signal amplifier in open loop, op-amp with close loop negative feedback, close loop gain, and frequency response of op-amp, linear applications like inverting and non-inverting amplifier, summing, difference.RF/HF AmplifiersHybrid - n small signal model of BJT, its relation with h-parameters, definitions of fa, fp, fT. Calculation of Ai and Av with finite load and source resistances for CE stage. Gain bandwidth product, Tuned load, loaded and unloaded Q, insertion loss, single tuned amplifiers, staggered tuning, Cascade configuration for HF amplification.'Voltage RegulatorsZener diode as a shunt regulator, emitter follower regulator, transistorised series feedback type regulator, Comparisons of above discrete regulators on the basis of Sv, St and ro, CV/CC modes, over voltage/over current protection circuits, internal block diagram, pin diagram and specification of IC regulator 723, low/high positive voltage, negative and floating regulators using IC 723, Safe operating area of IC regulators.Considerations of PCB Design, fabrication and assemblyMechanical dimensions of devices and components used in electronic circuit and their dependencies on package of device, rules of preparing layout and drawing artwork, fabrication process of single sided PCB board/DSPTH, various copper clad laminates, composition of solder metal, etc.
by U.A.Bakshi A.P.Godse
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